Style bris Gaultier & the French Lute School Around 1600, Italian musicians abandoned their old style (renaissance) and established a new one (baroque). Somewhat later, probably around 1630, a new tuning (french tuning, d minor tuning or even baroque lute tuning) was invented for the lute by the circle of lutenists around le vieux Gaultier, or Gaultier de Lyon (Ennemond Gaultier, 1575-1651). The old (renaissance) tuning was based on the interval of a fourth. The new tuning introduced more thirds, enabling lutenists to write their music in a broken style (style bris), since it allowed more freedom for the fingers of the left hand. Soon the broken style gained great popularity throughout Europe. This tuning, incidentally, was already used by Mezangeau (late 16th century-1638), who may have been Ennemond Gaultiers teacher. It is difficult to separate Ennemond Gaultiers music from that of his cousin Denis Gaultier (Gaultier le jeune or Gaultier de Paris, 1603-1672). Nevertheless, their works are the most significant French contribution to the lute music of the period. They developed a new genre, the musical portrait, as well as the tombeau, which, in fact, they pioneered in the lute repertoire. Johann Jacob Froberger (1616-1667) was one of a number of composers of keyboard music, not only in France, who found inspiration in their music. Jacques Gallot (c.1600-c.1690), known as le vieux Gallot or Gallot de Paris, was a pupil of Ennemond Gaultier. His brother Antoine Gallot was known as vieux Gallot or Gallot dAngers. In addition to this minor confusion, there was a son of Antoine Gallot who was known as Gallot le jeune (?-c.1716).Download booklet
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